12 Economics Questions…Answers must be complete and original Due by 9:00pm eastern

Do not say you can do this assignment if you can not. Please indicate “why” or “why not” when needed. Complete unplagerised sentences are required when indicated. Thanks. Please put answers on attached spread sheet.

Salvatore 14: Discussion Question 12 What is the rationale behind the minimax regret rule? What are some less formal and precise methods of dealing with uncertainty? When are these useful?
ANSWER: Your answer goes here
Salvatore 14: Discussion Question 15 How does the adverse selection problem arise in the credit- card market? How do credit- card companies reduce the adverse selection problem that they face? To what complaint does this give rise?
ANSWER: Your answer goes here
Salvatore 14: Spreadsheet Problem 1 An individual has to choose between investment A and investment B. The individual estimates that the income and probability of the income from each investment are as given in the following table:   
Investment A   
Investment B
Income Probability  
Income Probability
4000            0.2           4000    
5000            0.3           6000   
6000            0.3           8000   
7000             0.2

(a) Using Excel’s statistical tools, calculate the standard deviation of the distribution of each investment. (b) Which of the two investments is more risky? (c) Which investment should the individual choose?

NOTE: Use table 14-4 as reference
ANSWER: Your answer goes here
Salvatore 14: Spreadsheet Problem 2 An individual is considering two investment projects. Project A will return a zero profi t if conditions are poor, a profi t of $ 4 if conditions are good, and a profi t of $ 8 if conditions are excellent. Project B will return a profi t of $ 2 if conditions are poor, a profi t of $ 3 if conditions are good, and a profi t of $ 4 if conditions are excellent. The probability distribution of conditions is as follows:      

Conditions: Poor Good Excellent
Probability: 40% 50% 10%
(a) Using Excel, calculate the expected value of each project and identify the preferred project according to this criterion. (b) Assume that the individual’s utility function for profit is      
U(X) = X – 0.05X2. Calculate the expected utility of each project and identify the preferred project according to this criterion. (c) Is this individual risk averse, risk neutral, or risk seeking? Why?

NOTE: Use tables 14-5 and 14-6 as reference
ANSWER: Your answer goes here
Froeb et al 17: IP 17-1 You’re the manager of global opportunities for a U. S. manufacturer, who is considering expanding sales into Europe. Your market research has identified three potential market opportunities: England, France, and Germany. If you enter the English market, you have a 0.5 chance of big success (selling 100,000 units at a per- unit profit of $8), a 0.3 chance of moderate success (selling 60,000 units at a per- unit profit of $6), and a 0.2 chance of failure (selling nothing). If you enter the French market, you have a 0.4 chance of big success (selling 120,000 units at a per- unit profit of $9), a 0.4 chance of moderate success (selling 50,000 units at a per- unit profit of $6), and a 0.2 chance of failure (selling nothing). If you enter the German market, you have a 0.2 chance of huge success (selling 150,000 units at a per- unit profit of $ 10), a 0.5 chance of moderate success (selling 70,000 units at a per- unit profit of $ 6), and a 0.3 chance of failure (selling nothing). If you can enter only one market, and the cost of entering the market (regardless of which market you select) is $250,000, should you enter one of the European markets? If so, which one? If you enter, what is your expected profit?
ANSWER: Your answer goes here.
Froeb et al 17: IP 17-4 Your company has a customer who is shutting down a production line, and it is your responsibility to dispose of the extrusion machine. The company could keep it in inventory for possible future product and estimates that the reservation value is $250,000. Your dealings on the second-hand market lead you to believe that there is a 0.4 chance a random buyer will pay $300,000, a 0.25 chance the buyer will pay $350,000, a 0.1 chance the buyer will pay 400,000, and a 0.25 chance it will not sell. If you must commit to a posted price, what price maximizes profits?
ANSWER: Your answer goes here
Froeb et al 19: IP 19-5 Soft selling occurs when a buyer is skeptical of the usefulness of a product and the seller offers to set a price that depends on realized value. For example, suppose you’re trying to sell a company a new accounting system that will reduce costs by 10%. Instead of naming a price, you offer to give them the product in exchange for 50% of their cost savings. Describe the information asymmetry, the adverse selection problem, and why soft selling is a successful signal.
ANSWER: Your answer goes here
Froev et al 19: IP 19-6 You need to hire some new employees to staff your start-up venture. You know that potential employees are distributed throughout the population as follows, but you can’t distinguish among them:                                                        
Employee Value     Probability
 $50,000                0.25
$60,000                0.25
$70,000                0.25
$80,000                0.25

What is the expected value of five employees you hire?

NOTE: Need to consider adverse selection.
ANSWER: Your answer goes here
Salvatore 15: Discussion Question 7 (a) When can the NPV and the IRR methods of evaluating investment projects provide contradictory results? (b) How can this arise? (c) Which method should then be used? Why?
ANSWER: Your answer goes here
Salvatore 15: Problem 8 John Piderit, the general manager of the Western Tool Company, is considering introducing some new tools to the company’s product line. The top management of the firm has identified three types of tools (referred to as projects A, B, and C). The various divisions of the firm have provided the data given in the following table on these three possible projects. The company has a limited capital budget of $ 2.4 million for the coming year. (a) Which project(s) would the firm undertake if it used the NPV investment criterion? (b) Is this the correct decision? Why?

NOTE: Remember the firm has a limited capital budget of $2.4 million for the coming year. In other words, the firm faces the capital rationing and should use the profitability index as its investment criterion (pp. 637–640).
ANSWER: Your answer goes here
Salvatore 15: Problem 10 The MacBurger Company, a chain of fast- food restaurants, expects to earn $ 200 million after taxes for the current year. The company has a policy of paying out half of its net after-
tax income to the holders of the company’s 100 million shares of common stock. A share of the common stock of the company currently sells for eight times current dividends.
Management and outside analysts expect the growth rate of earnings and dividends for the company to be 7.5 percent per year. Calculate the cost of equity capital to this fi rm.

NOTE: Use the dividend valuation model (pp. 642–643). “A share of the common stock of the company currently sells for eight times current dividends

ANSWER: Your answer goes here
Salvatore 15: Spreadsheet Problem 1 The benefits and costs of an investment project (the purchase of a piece of machinery) are those given in the following table. In Excel, calculate net revenue, or the revenue from the investment minus the costs; the present value coefficient for every year; and the present value of the net revenue. Add together column F to get the net present value of the project. Should the firm purchase the machine?

NOTE: Change the present value coefficient from 1/(1+0.5)n to 1/(1+0.05)n. That is the discount rate of 5% instead of 50%
ANSWER: Your answer goes here




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Growth and Development

Physical Development


What Is It?

During the teen years, adolescents experience changes in their physical development at a rate of speed unparalleled since infancy. Physical development includes:

  • Rapid gains in height and weight. During a one-year growth spurt, boys and girls can gain an average of 4.1 inches and 3.5 inches in height respectively. This spurt typically occurs two years earlier for girls than for boys. Weight gain results from increased muscle development in boys and body fat in girls. 


  • Development of secondary sex characteristics. During puberty, changing hormonal levels play a role in activating the development of secondary sex characteristics. These include: (1) growth of pubic hair; (2) menarche (first menstrual period for girls) or penis growth (for boys); (3) voice changes (for boys); (4) growth of underarm hair; (5) facial hair growth (for boys); and (6) increased production of oil, increased sweat gland activity, and the beginning of acne.


  • Continued brain development. Recent research suggests that teens’ brains are not completely developed until late in adolescence. Specifically, studies suggest that the connections between neurons affecting emotional, physical and mental abilities are incomplete. This could explain why some teens seem to be inconsistent in controlling their emotions, impulses, and judgments.


How Do These Changes Affect Teens?

  • Teens frequently sleep longer. Research suggests that teens actually need more sleep to allow their bodies to conduct the internal work required for such rapid growth. On average, teens need about 9 1/2 hours of sleep a night. 


  • Teens may be more clumsy because of growth spurts. If it seems to you that teens’ bodies are all arms and legs then your perception is correct. During this phase of development, body parts don’t all grow at the same rate. This can lead to clumsiness as the teen tries to cope with limbs that seem to have grown overnight. Teens can appear gangly and uncoordinated. (just think about a puppy with big feet and legs but no developed balance yet!) 


  • Teenage girls may become overly sensitive about their weight. This concern arises because of the rapid weight gain associated with puberty. Sixty percent of adolescent girls report that they are trying to lose weight. A small percentage of adolescent girls (1-3%) become so obsessed with their weight that they develop severe eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia. Anorexia nervosa refers to starvation; bulimia refers to binge eating and vomiting.

  • Teens may be concerned because they are not physically developing at the same rate as their peers. Teens may be more developed than their peers (“early-maturers”) or less developed than their peers (“late-maturers”). Being out of developmental “step” with peers is a concern to adolescents because most just want to fit in. Early maturation affects boys and girls differently. Research suggests that early maturing boys tend to be more popular with peers and hold more leadership positions. Adults often assume that early maturing boys are cognitively mature as well. This assumption can lead to false expectations about a young person’s ability to take on increased responsibility. Because of their physical appearance, early maturing girls are more likely to experience pressure to become involved in dating relationships with older boys before they are emotionally ready. Early maturing girls tend to suffer more from depression, eating disorders, and anxiety.

  • Teens may feel awkward about demonstrating affection to the opposite sex parent. As they develop physically, teens are beginning to rethink their interactions with the opposite sex. An adolescent girl who used to hug and kiss her dad when he returned home from work may now shy away. A boy who used to kiss his mother good night may now wave to her on his way up the stairs.

  • At this stage, adolescents are trying to figure out their sexual values. Teens often equate intimacy with sex. Rather than exploring a deep emotional attachment first, teens tend to assume that if they engage in the physical act, the emotional attachment will follow. Questions arise about how to abstain without becoming embarrassed or about how they will know when the time is right. You may also have specific questions about methods of birth control and protection from sexually transmitted diseases. One thing to remember – ALWAYS ASK QUESTIONS!!

Check out this site about Human Sexuality for Teens

Here is some more good information on puberty and delayed puberty


Cognitive Development:

What Is It?

You may recognize that you have better thinking skills than when you were younger. These advances in thinking can be divided into several areas:

  • Developing advanced reasoning skills. Advanced reasoning skills include the ability to think about multiple options and possibilities. It includes a more logical thought process and the ability to think about things hypothetically. It involves asking and answering the question, “what if…?”.


  • Developing abstract thinking skills. Abstract thinking means thinking about things that cannot be seen, heard, or touched. Examples include things like faith, trust, beliefs and spirituality.


  • Developing the ability to think about thinking in a process known as “meta-cognition.” Meta-cognition allows individuals to think about how they feel and what they are thinking. It involves being able to think about how one is perceived by others. It can also be used to develop strategies, also known as mnemonic devices, for improving learning. Remembering the notes on the lines of a music staff (e, g, b, d, and f) through the phrase “every good boy does fine” is an example of such a mnemonic device.


How Do These Changes Affect Teens?

  • Teens demonstrate a heightened level of self-consciousness. Teens tend to believe that everyone is as concerned with their thoughts and behaviors as they are. This leads teens to believe that they have an “imaginary audience” of people who are always watching them.


  • Teens tend to believe that no one else has ever experienced similar feelings and emotions. They may become overly dramatic in describing things that are upsetting to them. They may say things like “You’ll never understand,” or “My life is ruined!”


  • Teens tend to exhibit the “it can’t happen to me” syndrome also known as a “personal fable.” This belief causes teens to take unnecessary risks like drinking and driving (“I won’t crash this car”), having unprotected sex (I can’t possibly get pregnant), or smoking (I can’t possibly get cancer”).

  • Teens tend to become very cause-oriented. Their activism is related to the ability to think about abstract concepts. After reading about cruelty to animals a teen may become a vegetarian and a member of “People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals” (P.E.T.A.). Another teen may become active in “Green Peace” or “Save the Whales” campaigns.


Psycho-Social Development

What Is It?

There are five recognized psychosocial issues that teens deal with during their adolescent years. These include:

  • Teens tend to exhibit a “justice” orientation. They are quick to point out inconsistencies between adults’ words and their actions. They have difficulty seeing shades of gray. They see little room for error.
  • Establishing an identity. This has been called one of the most important tasks of adolescents. The question of “who am I” is not one that teens think about at a conscious level. Instead, over the course of the adolescent years, teens begin to integrate the opinions of influential others (e.g. parents, other caring adults, friends, etc.) into their own likes and dislikes. The eventual outcome is people who have a clear sense of their values and beliefs, occupational goals, and relationship expectations. People with secure identities know where they fit (or where they don’t want to fit) in their world.

  • Establishing autonomy. Some people assume that autonomy refers to becoming completely independent from others. They equate it with teen “rebellion.” Rather than severing relationships, however, establishing autonomy during the teen years really means becoming an independent and self-governing person within relationships. Autonomous teens have gained the ability to make and follow through with their own decisions, live by their own set of principles of right and wrong, and have become less emotionally dependent on parents. Autonomy is a necessary achievement if the teen is to become self-sufficient in society.

  • Establishing intimacy. Many people, including teens, equate intimacy with sex. In fact, intimacy and sex are not the same. Intimacy is usually first learned within the context of same-sex friendships, then utilized in romantic relationships. Intimacy refers to close relationships in which people are open, honest, caring and trusting. Friendships provide the first setting in which young people can practice their social skills with those who are their equals. It is with friends that teens learn how to begin, maintain, and terminate relationships, practice social skills, and become intimate.

  • Becoming comfortable with one’s sexuality. The teen years mark the first time that young people are both physically mature enough to reproduce and cognitively advanced enough to think about it. Given this, the teen years are the prime time for the development of sexuality. How teens are educated about and exposed to sexuality will largely determine whether or not they develop a healthy sexual identity. More than half of most high school students report being sexually active. Many experts agree that the mixed messages teens receive about sexuality contribute to problems such as teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.

  • Achievement. Our society tends to foster and value attitudes of competition and success. Because of cognitive advances, the teen years are a time when young people can begin to see the relationship between their current abilities and plans and their future vocational aspirations. They need to figure out what their achievement preferences are-what they are currently good at and areas in which they are willing to strive for success. 

How Do These Changes Affect Teens?

  • Teens begin to spend more time with their friends than their families. It is within friendship groups that teens can develop and practice social skills. Teens are quick to point out to each other which behaviors are acceptable and which are not. It is important to remember that even though teens are spending increased amounts of time with their friends, they still tend to conform to parental ideals when it comes to decisions about values, education, and long-term plans.

  • Teens may have more questions about sexuality. They may ask about adults’ values and beliefs. They may ask how you knew it was time to have sex or why you waited.

  • Teens may begin to keep a journal. Part of achieving identity is thinking about one’s thoughts and feelings (reflective thought). Teens often begin journaling as a way of working through how they feel.

  • When they are in their rooms, teens may begin to lock their bedroom doors. Locking doors is a way to establish privacy

  • Teens may become involved in multiple hobbies or clubs. In an attempt to find out what they are good at, teens may try many activities. Teens’ interests also change quickly. (Today you are into yoga, and tomorrow you are into soccer).

  • Teens may become elusive about where they are going or with whom. When asked what they’ll be doing for the evening, teens typically reply with “nothing” or “hanging out.” When asked whom they’ll be with, teens reply, “just some friends.”

  • Teens may become more argumentative. Teens may question adults’ values and judgments. When teens don’t get their way, they may say, “you just don’t understand.”

  • Teens may not want to be seen with parents in public. They may make parents drop them off a block from their friends’ houses or from school.

  • Teens may begin to interact with parents as people. Even though they may not want to be seen with parents in public, teens may begin to view parents more as people. They may ask more questions about how a parent was when he or she was a teen. They may attempt to interact with adults more as equals.


1)  When do males “typically” begin and end puberty?

2) When do girls “typically” go through puberty?

3) What are 2 physical changes that both boys and girls go through (you can list 2 each if they aren’t the same changes)

4) Can you relate to any of the changes discussed in either of these two articles?

5) What do you think is the hardest part about the physical changes you endure during puberty?

6) What is autonomy (in your own words)?

7) How do you feel your psycho-social development has affected your relationship with your parent(s)?

8) Physical Development – Please summarize all your findings in two or more paragraphs

9) Cognitive Development – Please summarize your findings in two or more paragraphs

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Mini Strategic Audit

The strategic audit system is a diagnostic tool to pinpoint an organization’s strengths and weaknesses. Use the Strategic Analysis Framework and other tools in order to conduct a strategic audit.  You might consider using a SWOT analysis for both companies to analyze each companies situation.

For this assignment, a mini strategic audit will be conducted for two companies with an overall goal to compare how each company differs in the strategy management and implementation, while indentifying the importance of strategic management.

Assignment Requirements

Conduct a mini Strategic Audit on e-company Tigerdirect.com and Best Buy, Visit the each company’s website at Tiger Direct at http://www.tigerdirect.com/ and Best Buy at www.bestbuy.com.  After conducting research, identify key strategies that each company has in common.  List a brief introduction of each company, to include the Mission Statement and compare key aspects of each company.  Identify the importance of strategic management based on your research. Be sure to include the concepts identified in the readings for this week’s topics.

Submit your answers in a 1000 word, APA style paper.  Include a title sheet and 2-3 references.  Only one reference may be found on the internet.  The other references must be found in the Grantham University online library.  Only the body of the paper will count toward the word requirement.  Please see rubric below.

Grading Criteria Assignments Maximum Points
Meets or exceeds established assignment criteria 40
Demonstrates an understanding of lesson concepts 20
Clearly presents well-reasoned ideas and concepts 30
Uses proper mechanics, punctuation, sentence structure, spelling, And APA

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Model 3 Assignment

Learning Resources

Required Resources

Assignment: Early Childhood Career Opportunities

Interest in child development and the field of early childhood care and education has been growing for many years. Currently, due to the increase in public awareness as well as research validating the vital role that the early years play and the positive impact of quality early childhood care and education, there are more professional opportunities related to working with children and families than ever before. Some of these include: working directly with children from birth to age 8 and their families (teaching or assistant teaching in a variety of care and education settings); taking on administrative roles in programs that support children and families (directing and assistant directing in a variety of programs); and working at the local, state, national, or international level on behalf of children and families (in hospitals and health services, departments of health or education, child care resource and referral networks, state licensing organizations, and international advocacy groups). As well, there are openings for qualified instructors at community colleges, four-year colleges, and graduate schools.

Assistance has also dramatically increased for those who are beginning their studies in child development and those who want to advance in their careers. Not only do many states have “career lattices” that support furthering one’s education, but there has also been a national movement to provide scholarships, monetary supplements, and grants to students pursuing early childhood education degrees.

This assignment will provide you with an opportunity to explore a variety of career options in the early childhood field and to reflect on your career goals and plan for professional development.

Part 1: Begin Your Career Exploration

You will review a wide range of career choices in the early childhood field, then create a Career Profile Form for a career that interests you most at this time. Before you begin researching various professions, download and review the Career Profile Form (provided below):

Click here for the Career Profile Form

With the questions on the form in mind, click on one or both of the following Web sites and look over the professions listed.

Part 2: Research

Next, learn more about the profession you have chosen at the following Web site:

Use this Web site by either typing the profession of your choice in the “Search” window or by clicking on the category closest to your choice in the list that begins with “Child care workers.” Once you have selected one of these categories, scroll down to review all of the information. (Generally, the information is pertinent to most occupations in a specific category. However, the “Earnings” section at the bottom of the page provides specifics as well as links to information on related careers.)

Part 3: Share and Learn

Finally, share your Career Profile with your colleagues in this course by posting your completed Career Profile in the Doc Sharing area (located at the top of the classroom). Save your Career Profile as CP+last name+your first initial. Post your Career Profile to the Doc Sharing area by Day 7 of Week 8.

Then, review at least two Career Profiles posted by your colleagues.

For this assignment, submit:

  • Your Career Profile
  • A 1-page summary of the following:
    • The insights you gained about career opportunities in the field
    • How this information might impact your own career choices and/or professional development
    • You will also be expected to reference at least 2 other students Career Profiles

Assignment length: 2 pages

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dis2 wor

  • The philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke disagreed on the understanding of political authority, with Locke taking what is commonly called the “liberal” view. Choose a side (be brave perhaps; take a side you actually disagree with). Using the writings of each given in our class text or at the Websites below, make your case for the side you chose and against the other side. Identify one (1) modern situation in the world where these issues are significant.

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ECO 550 dic

discussion 1 :

“Predicting Price-Setting Strategies” Please respond to the following: * From the scenario for Katrina’s Candies, determine the importance of predicting the pricing strategies of rival firms in an industry characterized by mutual interdependence. Provide a rationale for your response.

–                                 ———————————————-


discussion 2 :

Price-Setting Strategies” Please respond to the following: Examine the common price setting strategies of airlines that use game theory. Predict the potential effects of such pricing strategies on the demand for seats, and conclude the resulting impact on the profitability of the airlines.

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Biology Paper

Written Assignment: Biology and Technology in the Real World


Addresses course outcomes 1-4:

  • recognize and explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems
  • make observations and discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific explanations
  • weigh evidence and make decisions based on strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge and the scientific method
  • use knowledge of biological principles, the scientific method, and appropriate technologies to ask relevant questions, develop hypotheses, design and conduct experiments, interpret results, and draw conclusions

1. Select one of the topics listed below.


2. Find at least three information sources related to the topic. 


3. Write a 750-1500 word paper, excluding references and title page. You must read the information sources that you find and summarize the information in your own words, addressing each of the questions and expectations for your chosen topic. Extensive quotes from the article are discouraged. Use APA style for citing references.


 Topics (select one)

a) Genetically modified organisms (GMOs). What is the purpose genetic engineering of crop plants and domestic animals? Briefly explain how GMOs are created. What foods in your supermarket contain GMOs? Are foods that contain GMOs safe for human consumption? What types of regulations exist for these foods? Clearly explain your reasoning for each answer. 


b) Stem cells. Your friend had a spinal cord injury after a bad car accident. The medical team has decided that he is a good candidate for a clinical trial using stem cell therapy. Your friend has not had a biology course since high school, so you decide to write him a letter sharing your knowledge of stem cells. Include in your letter a description of the biology of stem cells and how these cells are unique from other cells. Contrast the different types of stem cells, including pros and cons of each. Explain how stems cells are can be used to treat diseases and injury, with special focus on spinal cord injuries. Conclude with your own opinion. 


c) Fracking (hydraulic fracturing) and tar sands (oil sands).  With society’s dependence on nonrenewable fossil fuels, the oil & gas industry is turning to the use of hydraulic fracturing and tar (oil) sands to extract natural gas and oil respectively.  A friend asks you “What’s all this controversy in the news about fracking and tar sands?”  Briefly explain to your friend how hydraulic fracturing and tar (oil) sands are used to obtain these fossil fuels. Then, in more detail, describe the environmental problems that may result from these processes and why they are controversial. Issues that may be addressed involves, but are not limited to, water, air and soil pollution, effects on human health, effects on other species and natural ecosystems. Finally, give your opinions on possible solutions to these environmental problems, with your reasoning backed by the references that you studied. 

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